XPath Expressions

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Expressions are used within constraints to generate a value that is true.

There are three types of expressions usable for constraints:

  • Comparisons with operators
  • Functions
  • Exist-expressions


A comparison expression consists of two attributes or values, separated by a comparison operator, like ‘=’, ‘<=’ and ‘>’.

//Sales.Customer[Name = 'Jansen']

This query retrieves all customers whose name is ‘Jansen’.

//Sales.Order[TotalPrice + ShippingPrice < 50.00]

This query retrieves all orders for which the sum of the total price and the shipping price is less than 50.00 euros.

//Sales.Customer[Sales.Customer_Order/Sales.Order/HasPayed = false()]

This query retrieves all customers who have at least one unpaid order.

//Sales.Customer[Name = City]

This query retrieves all customers who have the same name as the city they live in.

//Sales.Customer[Sales.Customer_Order = 'ID_124123512341']

This query retrieves the customer who placed the order with the given unique identification number.

The same result can be retrieved by doing the following query:

//Sales.Customer[Sales.Customer_Order/Sales.Order/ID = 'ID_124123512341']

However, it is strongly recommended not to use this notation. This is because its execution is inefficient and results in a lower performance due to manner in which it is processed by the database.


See this page for information on the available functions.


The last type of expression, the exist-expression, can be used to check whether a specific association is filled or not.


This query retrieves all customers who have placed at least one order.


This query retrieves all customers who have not placed any orders.